In Nigeria, gender equality remains a challenge despite some government efforts to address the challenge. A recent Afrobarometer survey findings in Nigeria show that women are less likely than men to have post-secondary education and are less than half as likely as men to say they have control over how household money is spent. Popular support for gender equality is limited, especially among men.
When it comes to hiring, land ownership, control over key assets, and participation in household financial decisions, women remain at a disadvantage compared to men. Women are less likely than men to report equal opportunities in hiring, though they are more likely than men to say they enjoy the same rights to land ownership and inheritance; Similarly, Citizens in the northern part of Nigeria are less likely than those in the South to say women enjoy equal rights in hiring but more likely to see land rights as equal.
While more than six in 10 citizens (61%) say women should have the same chance as men of being elected to public office, many also consider it likely that female candidates will suffer criticism and harassment. Only one-fourth (26%) of Nigerians say their government is doing a
“fairly” or “very” good job of promoting equal rights and opportunities for women. Most Nigerians say the government is doing a poor job of promoting women’s rights and opportunities.
Key findings § Survey findings show significant gender imbalances in Nigerian society:
- Women are less likely than men to have post-secondary education (17% vs. 29%) and more likely than men to have no formal schooling (20% vs. 12%).
- Women are less than half as likely as men to say they have control over how household money is spent (22% vs. 56%).
- Slim majorities say women should have the same rights as men to get a paying job (53%) and to own and inherit land (51%). Men are far less likely than women to endorse gender equality in hiring and land rights.
- Fewer than half of Nigerians say that in practice, women enjoy equal rights when it comes to getting a job (43%) and owning/inheriting land (30%).
- Six in 10 Nigerians (61%) say women should have the same chance as men of being elected to public office.
- Only one-fourth (26%) of citizens say the Nigerian government is performing “fairly well” or “very well” in promoting equal rights and opportunities for women. More than half (54%) say the government should do more to advance gender equality.
Afrobarometer is a pan-African, non-partisan survey research network that provides reliable data on African experiences and evaluations of democracy, governance, and quality of life.
Eight survey rounds in up to 39 countries have been completed since 1999. Round 9 surveys (2021/2022) are currently underway. Afrobarometer’s national partners conduct face-toface interviews in the language of the respondent’s choice.
The Afrobarometer team in Nigeria led by NOIpolls, interviewed a nationally representative sample of 1,600 adult citizens of this country in March 2022. A sample of this size yields countrylevel results with a margin of error of +/-2.5 percentage points at a 95% confidence level. Previous surveys were conducted in Nigeria in 1999, 2002, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2014, 2017, and 2020.
Figure 1: Educational attainment | by gender | Nigeria | 2022
Respondents were asked: What is your highest level of education?
Figure 2: Who decides how money is used? | by gender | Nigeria| 2022
Respondents were asked: What is the main way that decisions are made about how to use any money that you have or earn, for example from a job, a business, selling things, or other activities?
3: Should men have priority for scarce jobs? | by socio-demographic group|
Nigeria | 2022
Respondents were asked: For each of the following statements, please tell me whether you disagree or agree: When jobs are scarce, men should have more rights to a job than women.
4: Do women and men have equal opportunities to get a job and to own/inherit land? | by socio-demographic group | Nigeria | 2022
Respondents were asked: For each of the following statements, please tell me whether you disagree or agree:
In our country today, women and men have equal opportunities to get a job that pays a wage or salary.
In our country today, women and men have equal opportunities to own and inherit land.(% who “agree” or “strongly agree”)
5: Should women have an equal chance to be elected? | by sociodemographic group | Nigeria | 2022
Respondents were asked: Which of the following statements is closest to your view?
Statement 1: Men make better political leaders than women and should be elected rather than women.
Statement 2: Women should have the same chance of being elected to political office as men.(% who “agree” or “strongly agree” with each statement)
6: Should the government do more or less to promote equal rights and opportunities for women? | by gender | Nigeria| 2022
Respondents were asked: In your opinion, should government and elected officials be doing more than they are doing now to advance the rights and equality of women, or should they be doing less, or are they doing about the right amount?
Figure 7: Government performance in promoting equal rights and opportunities for women | Nigeria | 2022
Respondents were asked: How well or badly would you say the current government is handling the following matters, or haven’t you heard enough to say: Promoting equal rights and opportunities for women? (% who say “fairly well” or “very well”)
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